Wednesday, April 10, 2019

Does fewer PSA tests mean less prostate cancer

routine for men over the age of 50. Positive results on the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test would trigger a biopsy, and findings of cancer would lead almost inevitably to treatment.

But recently, the rate of PSA screening in the United States has fallen sharply — and the number of new cases of prostate cancer has dropped, too. That’s according to a pair of studies published together this past November in The Journal of the American Medical Association. The studies couldn’t prove that these two trends are causally related; however, the authors speculate that they are. That is, the drop in the number of new cases likely reflects declines in screening, rather than a drop in the number of men who actually have prostate cancer.

Like some other cancer screening tests, such as mammography for breast cancer, the PSA test has come under growing scrutiny. Experts say that it flags too many low-risk tumors that might never become harmful during a man’s lifetime. Treating those cancers can expose men to a needless risk of impotence, incontinence, and other side effects.
Why the numbers are dropping

In 2008, the United States Preventative Services Task Force (USPSTF), an influential volunteer panel of medical experts, came out against PSA screening in men older than 75. Then in 2012, they issued an updated recommendation against screening for all men, regardless of age, race, or family history. These recommendations are controversial. Even though many experts acknowledge the PSA test’s limitations, they worry that abandoning the PSA test altogether will boost diagnoses of late-stage tumors that may no longer be curable.

One of the newly published studies reviewed national PSA screening data collected between 2000 and 2013. Results showed that screening rates started falling in 2010, but only among men younger than 75, and especially within the 50-54 and 60-64 year age groups. The overall screening rate (for all men combined) fell from 36% to 31%.

The second study detected a similar drop in PSA screening rates — from 37.8% to 30.8% — as well as a 22% drop in new prostate cancer diagnoses. The authors of this study reviewed data maintained by the National Cancer Institute and found the number of diagnoses per 100,000 men ages 50 and older had fallen from 540.8 cases in 2008 to 416.2 cases in 2012. The biggest declines came after the USPSTF released a preliminary draft of its updated screening recommendations in October 2011.

“These are the first national, population-based data showing what appears to be an effect on prostate screening and diagnoses from the Task Force recommendations,” said Ahmedin Jemal, DVM, Ph.D., vice president of surveillance and health services research at the American Cancer Society, and a key author of the first study.
Don’t write off PSA screening just yet

In an accompanying editorial, Dr. David F. Penson, the chairman of urologic surgery at Vanderbilt University Medical Center, cautioned that the “pendulum” of popular opinion might be swinging too far away from screening. But rather than stopping screening altogether, Penson called for smarter, more targeted screening approaches directed mainly at men considered at high risk of developing prostate cancer.

“These new findings are an expected consequence of the Task Force’s conclusion that PSA testing probably causes more harm than good,” said Dr. Marc Garnick, the Gorman Brothers Professor of Medicine at Harvard Medical School and Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, and editor in chief of However, Dr. Garnick also called for better screening tests, acknowledging that the number of men presenting with more advanced prostate cancer is now likely to rise. “We also need studies that offer focused screening to those at potentially high risk of more aggressive forms of prostate cancer,” he said. “The research should test whether early treatment saves lives or decreases the rates of prostate cancer mortality. Until we have those data, the true effect of decreasing screening rates will remain unknown, and the debates about PSA testing will continue, with no clear answers in sight.” Everyone eats because it is a necessity for survival and without food, a person can starve and die. In most cities in Nigeria, the majority of the people are more concerned about making money, with no time to cook thereby relying on food vendors like restaurants and roadside canteens to meet their food needs. These have opened a lot of opportunities for individuals who want to invest in the restaurant business to make huge profits off the business.

In this article, you will get to learn what starting a profitable restaurant in Nigeria entails, as well as the tips to becoming a successful restaurant owner.
Steps to Starting a Profitable Restaurant Business

If a restaurant will make any profit from this business, the following factors or steps must be considered. They are:

A Business Plan

Businesses that want to overcome the challenging stages of this business must have a blueprint. This blueprint is the business plan. A business plan describes the business, what it does, how much money is needed to start and run it, what the money will be used for, how the company hopes to repay borrowed funds, the plan for investment, and marketing. Everything about the operations of the business is discovered through and documented in the business plan.

Raising Capital

Where will you get your funding from, savings alone, family and friends or a bank? Having the source of your money from the bank may lead to unwanted problems which may not be visible at the beginning of the business

Good Location

Location is one of the next important things in this business after you must have acquired the required startup capital. A restaurant without a good location will lead to outright failure. Regardless of the market, you should consider setting up your restaurant in an area with offices, business area, markets, places open to people and so on.

Related Post: How Bakery Business is profitable

Startup Expenses

Startup expenses are the necessary items or equipment needed to start up a business and for a restaurant business, you will need items such as cookers, pieces of furniture, electric power set/generator and most especially foodstuff, drinks, and so on.

Recruitment of Staff

Recruit capable and experienced staff to assist in the monitoring the activities in the restaurant. They should be able to attend to customers and take care of customer needs in an ideal, respectable, and satisfactory manner without compromise to quality, standard and business integrity.

Identify Your Target Market

This is usually stated in the business plan. Each restaurant has a different target market, depending on the size and class you prefer. Moreover, you can start with the low class (i.e., the low-income earners) and expand the business as it becomes more profitable thereby serving the bigger class or high-income earners in the long-run.

Supply both Foodstuff and Drinks

Get wholesalers to constantly supply foodstuffs at the least market price. To make more gains, consider adding drinks to your restaurant menu. To reduce cost, you can decide to buy your foodstuff and drinks directly from the manufacturer and major dealers at the right price. This will help reduce your cost price and increase your profits.


This is one of the important parts of the business. In order to retain customers, you must cook the right type of food demanded by your customers and most importantly your food must be tasty and affordable. In all you do, make sure you master the method of cooking at least one continental meal as this will make your business more classy and when your customers know that you can also cook and serve continental dishes, they may want a personal order of your continental meals which of course don’t always come cheap.


The environment where you position your restaurant should be cool with the chairs and tables neatly arranged and clean with no form of stain(s) from leftover food around. The interior design of the restaurant should be appealing to customers with adequate lightning and ventilation in place. Use bright red colors where necessary to paint the walls of the restaurant, to stimulate the appetite.


Ensure that your food attendants are neatly dressed and that they have good customer service relations. While working in the kitchen, they should endeavor to cover their heads to avoid contamination of the cooked meal with germs possibly from their hairs. It is your duty to orient them on how to relate well with customers and how to respond to different types of clients so that they will not send them away with bad attitude.

Price of Food and Drinks

Keep customers happy by selling at fair rates with no reduction in quality of food and they’ll keep coming back.

Marketing Skills

You need to be known regardless of how best you cook and that is where marketing comes in. If people don’t know what you are selling, the business will fail. You can deploy an open marketing advertisement approach by placing a large sign post in strategic positions/areas in good-quality graphics prints displaying what you do.

Profit and Loss Analysis

You need to have basic accounting knowledge so that you can read and understand your restaurants’ yearly financial statements.

Just know that you have profit when sales less cost of goods sold. Your major task to continually make a profit is to make sure your sales increase daily. Apart from that, make sure as sales increases, the operating costs as well is monitored.
Difference Between a Profitable Restaurant And an Unprofitable One

A profitable restaurant must have the required characteristics in order to remain and be regarded as an elite restaurant and be profitable in its dealings.

These are the things that differentiate a profitable restaurant and an unprofitable one:

A profitable restaurant

    must have a good place
    is passionate about quenching the customer’s hunger and thirst problems
    recruits experienced staff
    manages its staff and administers the business in a professional way
    rewards staff with incentives to enable them to continue to improve on service delivery
    purchases foodstuffs, drinks, and other condiments at wholesale price and sells at a  profit
    cooks quality food and serves chilled drinks always for customers satisfaction.
    makes sure its environment is attractive
    provides attendants with neat uniforms
    trains staff on how to serve customers
    listens to customer feedback
    corrects complaints immediately
    cooks food customers wants and high on demand.

Is the Restaurant Business truly a profit making business?

With the guidelines above for setting up and administrating a restaurant business, you can decipher the certain factors that differentiates a profitable one to the other. Therefore you can cook and serve your way to making millions in your business, reaching out to more and more customers on a daily basis.


Your business is as profitable as you want it to be and it being profitable depends on the good management team, marketing skills, happy staff, excellent customer services and the ability to keep your brand ahead from close competitors. Bakery business is one the lucrative businesses all around the world today. With a nation’s population increasing by millions, it shows that people will continually eat and it will be your business to provide the needed meal. Bread is one of the choice fast foods of people across the globe and in Nigeria, its demand is never in short supply. In Nigeria, for example, the amount of people who consume bread on a daily basis proves that the bakery industry is a profitable industry. In this article, you will have the knowledge needed to start up and maintain a profitable bakery business.
High Demand For Bakery Product

Bread as an example of bakery products is a good source of carbohydrates, proteins, and vitamins. Because it has such high nutritional value, it is widely consumed by almost everyone on this planet. For a very long time consumption of bread has been a necessity for human diets and as continuously yielded an increase in consumption over the years. This proves that the market is wide open for anyone to venture into as one can invest in opening a modern bakery to provide the highest in demand bread for consumers.

Nigeria with a large population consumes a lot of bread with locally made meals such as bean cakes, pap, beans etc. Another fraction of the population may require catering services for parties and wedding to provide snacks and pastries etc. However before you launch into the business, there are some few things you must note
Find Mentors Before You Commence Bakery Business

Search for mentors before you start your bakery business as mentors will easily provide you with solutions to difficulties in the business, provide ideas, tips and information necessary to having a successful bakery business. These mentors will serve as a guide to instruct you on among other things the necessary equipment needed, how to get your license, strategies and branding ideas to selling your bread, etc.

The bakery as a highly lucrative business

Nigerian loves baked foods such as the regular “puff puff”, Agege bread, small chops and so on. With all these, there’s is still a huge market to attract as baking has no limitations in terms of age, religion etc. If you can create a creative branding strategy you will definitely find it profitable by the end of the month.

With the huge population in Nigeria, it’s very easy to say every baker is a millionaire if they get to sell to about one million people in the open market in a day. But baking doesn’t grow in such large fashion in a day but requires adequate time in branding and improving on providing crocrowd-pleasing delicious meals at an affordable price and quick accessibility in order to increase sales.

See: How to Start A Successful Farming Business in Nigeria

If you have an intention of baking or you have started your baking business, here are the ways to make it profitable:
Market Survey

Do a proper survey or research to inquire about the demand presently in the market regarding baking products which other bakeries do not offer. In this survey, you can also find out if there is a customer relationship between the producer and the consumer. In this survey y,ou can state what the customer’s demands are and position your business in such a way that meet such demands.
Source for Start-up Capital

Whatever you discover from the demands in the market will affect the budget of your start-up capital and this could be more than your initial budget.
Source for Start-up Capital

The high demand which you have discovered in the market for a particular product will affect the amount of start-up capital you need to start the business.

Furthermore, your start-up capital will determine the materials you would need, the equipment you should buy, your business size, etc. All these would be drawn up into the estimated amount of what to you need to get your business up and running.
Have a Business Plan

The business plan enables you to draw out strategies to be used in the business such analyzing your start-up capital which has been estimated from your feasibility reports, where you want to get your capital from – this could be a loan, from your savings or assistance from family and friends.

This business plan will show marketing and branding strategies to be used to promote your brand, number of staff you need, equipment etc. It is important to start a business with a proper business plan.
Buy Necessary Bakery Equipment

Purchasing the right and necessary equipment is very important. Buying the right equipment depends on the level at which you want to startup the business such as the size of the bakery, capital and so on. Here is the list of equipment needed for a bakery business: mixers, dough molder, large tables, bread pans, display shelves, water proof wrapping sheets, oven, bread slicer, van for delivery and so on.

Proper installation and maintenance should be given to the skilled technicians to monitor and control.
Baking Materials

The major materials needed for baking are baking flour, baking soda, butter flavors, water and so on.
Get Approval from Government and Regulatory Bodies

If the law requires any form of payment to a regulatory body, kindly comply and pay every necessary dues and get your government approval and license, in order to carry out your business smoothly.
Get a Good Location

Find a good location that will promote sales. Location close to the buyers will improve sales on a regular basis which will mean constant production that will keep you in business. Without demand, there would be no business therefore get a place with enough traffic to keep yourself ib business.
Safety of Lives and Property

Nigerians have no regards about this matter, they rely more on spiritual matters when asked to get insurance. It is important to note that safety of lives and property is as important as the sales you want to make. Therefore, fix every necessary gadget or appliance for preventing major disaster to your establishment.
Recruit the Best Staff

After your business plan, your staff are also important, therefore, make sure you recruit the best hands with relevant experiences on the job. The recruited staff should not be bakers only but also individuals who understand marketing and distribution in order to promote sales.

See also: Establishing a Profit-Making Fish Farming Business
How is Bakery Business Profitable?

Bakery business is profitable if you start up with the right capital, inculcate and promote good customer relations, have the right team working with you; that is a team that understands the level of business and so on and so forth.

To venture into the profit side of the business, take note of the following:
Bakery Products Sales and Distribution:

If your product has the right branding and it’s properly packaged with a delicious taste, people will buy it.

Make sure that your products are fresh and attractive fonts or images pleasing to the consumer eyes.

Your distributors can include wholesalers, retailers as they bring your products closer to the consumers
Offer Trainings

You can offer training to a number of persons and charge from as low as 20,000 Naira and if you have 10 students, that’s 200,000 Naira. This student can also help in production of more products after completing the training.
Offer Event Catering Services

This is the most popular avenue used to make money in Nigeria. A lot of event are usually held on weekly basis and most of them require services of bakers to provide them some tasty meals.

For example a wedding cake costs about 50,000 to 500,000 Naira depending on the number of tiers and decoration. This is also similar to small chops which can be priced at 500 Naira per guests. If your production and packaging is top notch you will get referrals and lots of events will be needing more of your services.
Go on TV Shows

You could have the opportunity to host your personal baking show on TV which could bring more sponsorship deals and brand endorsement, creating a total uniqueness to your brand.

To get to this platform, you must be ready to invest all, that is your time, money and so on but at the end it’s definitely profitable.

Be very open to criticism so you can correct mistakes and do not allow anyone tell you it can’t be done, constantly press on to be better on every side. Turn your business into a money making venture. Farming is a business which yields a lot of profit especially when it involves the production of crops and livestock. Poultry farming is equally lucrative, especially when talking about chicken, pigeons, quails, and turkeys. Farming is the major sustainable source of economic development for nations over the years and has served as a means of livelihood for the populace and in Nigeria, the strategic role of farming cannot be overemphasized.

Farming business is the major focus for nations with good climate conditions for farming, as they look into building a sustainable development of the nation and make gainful employment of its populace, encouraging them to engage in farming.

Reasons Why You Should Start Farming Business In Nigeria

Why should you go into farming business in Nigeria? Also, why should Nigeria be the focal point for lucrative farming? The answers are:

    Large Productivity And Profitability Margin

The Nigerian environment is the lucrative choice for all farming investors as Nigeria has proven to be productive in its resources and show great number of profit achievable in the nation. There’s no country in West Africa with more production rate than Nigeria in the farming industry.

    High Population Of Nigeria

Nigeria has an estimated population of over 200 million and this puts a farming venture capitalist to an advantage to a wide open market to constantly do business directly with such estimated percentage of the populace. When the percentage of people who purchase your product from the open market is high, the farming business….
3. Availability of Expansive Fertile, Arable Land

Nigeria has a wide range of rich-fertile farmland which makes it open for investors to adequately invest in farming in Nigeria. With a estimated total mass of 910,770 excluding the water bodies makes it one of the largest land in Africa with over 70% of the land available for farming given the good weather conditions.

    Governmental Supports, Loans and Incentives

The government in Nigeria has encouraged local farming in Nigeria by showing support through granting of loans and giving of juicy incentives. In terms of support, the government provides necessary tools and materials which are essentials for farming and will also aid the production of farm goods largely available to the populace and for business to the international market.  Agriculture is also one of the highest earners of foreign exchange for Nigeria aside from oil. So, the government is fully supportive of farming practice in the country

Useful Caution Before Taking To Farming Business In Nigeria

Before you delve into farming in Nigeria, there are several imperatives you need to consider:

    For a would-be farmer to be successful in Nigeria, you need to master and understand the skills needed to be successful in the business. The major reason for this is that a lot has changed in the business and you must know your onions to avoid running into debts while aiming for profits in the farming business.
    In addition, you need to create a market strategy and identify which product you want to focus on or what you will be providing to the populace which will make your farming business a more successful one.
    Lastly, set a target for yourself and the business. This will bring about opportunities for improvement in certain areas that needs improvement. Although competition may arise but that should not overwhelm you to the point which you begin to lose focus of what you should do to keep the business going.
    You are meant to promote your business and constantly research on new innovations to make it better. It is, therefore, incumbent upon you to raise your bar to becoming a more successful farmer or businessman/woman in the farming industry in Nigeria.

Major Farming Businesses With High Prospect You Should Start In Nigeria Today
Now that you’ve decided to invest in farming, here are major farming business you should start today.  Note that the highlighted business are major farming practices which are high in demand by the populace in Nigeria today.
1. Rice Farming

A bag of rice currently cost about N13, 000 and N25, 000 in Nigeria depending on the quality of rice. Therefore with an estimated production of 100,000 thousand bags a year, selling at about N15, 000 will apparently result to about N1.5million Naira.

Rice is one of the most cheerful foodstuffs in Nigeria and widely consumed meal by most families. On a daily basis, over 70% of the Nigeria’s populace consumes rice and as 2011 the nation spent over 991 million Naira importing rice.

Therefore, starting up a rice farming business could be highly lucrative to you if all the money which is being used to import rice is directed to you as a major rice farmer.

Related Post: Establishing a Profit-Making Fish Farming Business
2. Cassava Farming
Cassava can be processed into several forms such as garri, starch or what the majority call fufu. This food is highly common in Nigeria as everyone eats cassava in one form or another. The cost of garri in the market is similar to rice and this means that there’s a lot to gain or profit in this farming business being that the foodstuff is a premium commodity in Nigeria.

Furthermore, Nigeria has lots of fertile lands for profitable cassava planting and management in which you can be getting profits in millions of naira from selling of raw cassava tubers or in its processed form such as Garri and fufu.
3. Poultry Farming

This is yet another highly profitable farming business in Nigeria. With adequate management of the poultry, a farmer could literally count millions in a very short time. This type of farming business is not difficult to start but requires a basic knowledge of its operations. This knowledge can be sought from veteran poultry farmers and they will shed more light on what is inherent in becoming a successful poultry farmer.
4. Beans farming

Beans is another high-in-demand farm product sort by Nigerians and it is important to note that beans costs almost double the price of a bag of rice and garri combined. The northerners are majorly involved in this business and they supply to states all over the country, ripping millions of Naira on large supplies. Wouldn’t you want to become a stakeholder in the beans farming business?
5. Catfish Farming

If you’re low on capital and want to start on a small farming business, catfish farming and snail farming are available to venture into. In the open market, the catfish sells for about N1,500 and you can gradually increase your production as you make sales.

    Snail Farming

Snail farming is another business which requires a low capital of less than N50,000. A research proved that a snail farmer can reap over 15 million Naira in the business within two to three years of operation. Asked a million dollar question get a pass on a mosquito come here to give us 300 marks LASIK they hate jumping up his feet again they get the hotter correct chemistry subject about has subsequently acquis back to the magnet economic keyboard or science or science subjects chemistry they’ll have the chemistry with the chemistry to get the good marks and chemistry apo bus the habit of Nick industry could develop or not or Zaza so to Digi key as a systematic way images and but I think so follow getting a 200% marks up could definitely angry Jim Hillary someday or but took 100 out of hundred I hate to ask any zero re login with it but the way I could hand rock now subsequently bought a big and ugly je cache after chemistry exam pattern Gary you have a coach in America

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